Category Archives: California Questions

What Do Employers Need to Know Following the Passage of California’s New Law on Independent Contractor Misclassification?

On September 18, 2019, Governor Gavin Newsom signed into law Assembly Bill 5, which clarifies when workers should be considered “employees” under the California Labor Code and the California Unemployment Insurance Code, thereby entitling them to the protections afforded by those laws. The bill codifies the standard set out in last year’s California Supreme Court decision, Dynamex Operations West, Inc. v. Superior Court of Los Angeles, which narrowed the circumstances under which a worker can properly be classified as an independent contractor. Specifically, under the new law, in order for a worker to properly be classified an independent contractor, the employer has the burden of establishing the following three elements (commonly referred to as the “ABC” test):

(A) The person is free from the control and direction of the hiring entity in connection with the performance of the work, both under the contract for the performance of the work and in fact;

(B) The person performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business;

(C) The person is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, or business of the same nature as that involved in the work performed.

Most of the provisions of AB 5 become effective on January 1, 2020. Below are some answers to frequently asked questions to help employers navigate this significant development.

  1. Is the law under AB 5 any different than the Dynamex ruling? Under Dynamex, the “ABC” test was limited to the resolution of the employee or independent contractor question in claims arising under California’s Wage Orders—for example, claims for failure to pay minimum wage, overtime, or failure to provide adequate meal and rest periods. AB 5 codifies the decision in the Dynamex case and expands the application of the “ABC” test not only for purposes of the Wage Orders, but also the Labor Code and Unemployment Insurance Code as well.  This means that the “ABC” test will apply to more claims, including failure to reimburse necessary business expenses, failure to provide accurate and complete wage statements, claims for waiting time penalties under Labor Code section 203, potential recovery of Private Attorney General Act (PAGA) penalties, and failure to provide workers’ compensation insurance.AB 5 also empowers the California Attorney General and specified local prosecuting agencies to pursue injunctions against putative employers suspected of misclassifying their workers.
  2. Are there any exceptions to the application of the new standard in AB 5? AB 5 provides an exemption for a number of industries and occupations, subject to licensing and other requirements, including:
    • Insurance brokers
    • Physicians, surgeons, dentists, podiatrists, psychologists or veterinarians
    • Lawyers, architects, engineers, private investigators and accountants
    • Registered securities broker-dealer or investment adviser and their agents and representatives
    • Direct sales salespersons (if they meet certain factors)
    • Commercial fishermen working on an American vessel (until January 1, 2023)
    • Contracts for “professional services” such as marketing, human resources administration, travel agents, graphic designers, grant writers, fine artists (if they meet certain factors)
    • Photographers, photojournalists, freelance writers, editors, or newspaper cartoonists (if they meet certain factors)
    • Licensed estheticians, electrologists, manicurists (until January 1, 2022), barbers, or cosmetologists (if they meet certain factors)
    • Real estate agents
    • Licensed repossession agencies
    • Bona fide business-to-business contracting relationships (under certain conditions)
    • Construction subcontractors (for work performed after January 1, 2020, under certain conditions)
    • Construction trucking services (until January 1, 2022)
    • Tutors (if they meet certain factors)
    • Motor club services

    For these occupations, the determination of employee or independent contractor status will be governed by the more flexible, multi-factor test outlined in the California Supreme Court’s decision in S. G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v. Department of Industrial Relations.

  3. What effect does AB 5 have on an employer’s obligation to provide workers’ compensation insurance? The California Labor Code, at sections 3200 et. seq., requires employers to have workers’ compensation insurance covering their employees. AB 5 amends section 3351 of the Labor Code so that, for the purposes of determining the obligation to provide workers’ compensation coverage, the “ABC” test governs. Accordingly, workers who fall within the “ABC” test (and are not covered by an exception), should be covered by workers’ compensation insurance. Note that the narrowed definition of employee does not become effective until July 1, 2020 (with respect to the workers’ compensation provisions specifically).
  4. Will AB 5 affect an employer’s obligation to pay payroll taxes? The Unemployment Insurance Code imposes obligations on employers to pay certain amounts of Unemployment Insurance Tax and Employment Training Tax for its employees. Because AB 5 changes the definition of “employee” in the Unemployment Insurance Code, employers will have to pay these payroll taxes for workers who meet the definition of “employee” under the new test.
  5. Does AB 5 affect how much employers will have to withhold from employee’s paychecks? The Unemployment Insurance Code also imposes obligations on employers to withhold a portion of employees’ wages for State Disability Insurance and for California personal income tax. Accordingly, employers will have to make these withholdings for workers who meet the definition of “employee” under the new test.
  6. Does AB 5 affect an employer’s obligation to provide health insurance? Prior to AB 5, neither the California Labor Code nor the Unemployment Insurance Code imposed an obligation to provide health insurance to employees.  The amendments to these statutes pursuant to AB 5 do not add a requirement to provide health insurance to employees.  The federal Affordable Care Act sets up a scheme whereby “large” employers must either provide health insurance to a certain percentage of their employees, or pay specified penalties.  We have not yet seen any developments indicating whether the change in the definition of “employee” under California law will affect the determination of whether a worker is considered an “employee” under the federal ACA.  However, we are monitoring this issue closely.Note, however, that some jurisdictions in California, such as San Francisco, require certain employers to satisfy health care spending requirements for employees. The amount of required spending is based on the number of the employer’s employees, with small employers potentially exempt from the requirement. AB 5 could have an impact on how these requirements apply to employers.
  7. Can employers continue to pay workers who were formerly classified as independent contractors on a piece rate or project basis? AB 5 does not impact an employer’s ability to pay workers on a piece rate basis.   In order to properly do so, however, the employer must satisfy all requirements for paying employees by the piece or unit produced.   Namely, among other things, the employer must pay the employee not less than the applicable minimum wage for all hours worked in the payroll period, compensate employees for rest and recovery periods and for other nonproductive time separate from any piece-rate compensation, and ensure that piece-rate workers are paid overtime for hours worked in excess of eight in a day or forty in a week.
  8. What effect does AB 5 have on employers who hire temporary workers through a staffing agency? AB 5 does not have a direct effect on employers who hire temporary workers through a staffing agency, assuming the staffing agency categorizes those workers as employees of the staffing agency, and not independent contractors. If the staffing agency categorized those workers as independent contractors, and placed the workers at the contracting company’s site, arguably working subject to the control of the contracting company, there is a risk that the workers could make a claim of misclassification based on the “ABC” test against both the staffing agency and the contracting company. We recommend companies retaining temporary workers through a staffing agency confirm that the staffing agency classifies the workers placed as employees, unless they clearly meet the definition of an independent contractor.

The decision as to whether to reclassify workers, and the changes to payroll and other benefits that may come along with it, continues to be nuanced. If you have independent contractors within your workforce, contact your Dorsey employment attorney for guidance.

Multistate Non-solicitation Agreements: Does One Size Fit All?

Many employers have offices in multiple states, but want to have one form of employee agreement prohibiting solicitation of employees and customers. Since some state laws, namely California, may be too different to reconcile with other states, what sort of non-solicitation agreements work in California?

In California, non-solicitation agreements are reviewed as contracts which prevent a person from engaging in a profession, trade or occupation which, with limited exceptions, are void under Business and Professions Code section 16600. Thus, recent cases have held that an agreement between an employer and employee prohibiting the solicitation of customers is not enforceable unless tied to the employee’s use of trade secrets or some other legal duty owed by the employee.

Employers have tried to draft enforceable non-solicitation clauses by characterizing customer and employee information as trade secrets. In late 2018, in AMN Healthcare, Inc. v. Aya Healthcare Services, Inc. the Court of Appeal upheld summary judgment in favor of the former employee defendants and their new employer. The former and new employer were competitors providing temporary travel nurses to medical facilities across the U.S.

The employee defendants were recruiters who signed agreements that “during employee’s employment with the Company and for a period of one year after the termination employee shall not directly or indirectly solicit or induce, or cause others to solicitor or induce, any employee of the Company . . . to leave the service of the Company.” AMN claimed that the travel nurses names and contact information were trade secrets. The court concluded that the nurses had applied to AMN years before and that the information was already in AMN’s possession or could have been obtained from other sources such as a public media group network, the Gypsy Nurse Group. For this reason, and because the employee’s profession was the recruitment of other employees, the Court found the non-solicitation agreement unenforceable.

Employers in California must therefore normally tailor any non-solicitation agreements and carefully consider if the employee truly possesses confidential/trade secret information that could be used to solicit customers. To the extent the information the employee would use to solicit is a trade secret, courts have considered the agreement to be valid. Other states may allow broader non-solicitation agreements, therefore you should use different forms to receive the maximum protection in those states.

In a Common Sense Decision, Appellate Court Clarifies Deadline for Employers to Issue Wage Statements under Labor Code Section 226

It’s a situation any Human Resources professional might find themselves in – circumstances require you to effectuate a termination in short order and you have to scramble to calculate the employees’ correct final pay and prepare a paycheck. But what if the wage statement is not ready? Does the law require employers to provide a wage statement to a terminated employee simultaneously with their final paycheck? Thanks to a recent decision from the California Court of Appeal, you have a little breathing room.

In Canales v. Wells Fargo Bank, 23 Cal. App. 5th 1262 (2018), Wells Fargo had a practice of paying certain terminated employees final wages via cashier’s checks – which were prepared in the bank branch – and then mailing the wage statements to the employees from another location, either that same day, or the following day. The plaintiff complained that the wage statements should have been provided simultaneously with the paychecks, and that Wells Fargo’s practice of mailing them constituted a violation of California Labor Code section 226, which provides:

“…[e]very employer should semimonthly or at the time of each payment of wages, furnish each of his or her employees, either as a detachable part of the check, draft, or voucher paying the employee’s wages, or separately when wages are paid by personal check or cash, an accurate itemized statement in writing…”

Wells Fargo responded that it was in compliance with the statute because:

1) The statute does not require simultaneous delivery of wage statements and specifically allows employers the option to provide wage statements “semimonthly;” and

2) It was permitted to mail the wage statements, because the statute provides that wage statements can be delivered “separately” in the case of a cashier’s check, which is analogous to cash.

The court agreed, holding, “…if an employer furnishes an employee’s wage statement before or by the semimonthly deadline, the employer is in compliance.” The court explained that it interpreted the phrase ‘“semimonthly or at the time of each payment of wages’ as representing the outermost deadlines by which an employer is required to furnish the wage statement.” The court provided the following example:

[S]uppose an employer furnishes wage statements on the first and 15th of each month. The employer discharges an employee on the second of the month. Per the statute’s plain language, if an employer pays the final wages by personal check or cash, it has the option of furnishing the discharged employee with the wage statement.

We find it illogical to conclude an employer violated section 226 by furnishing a wage statement before the semimonthly date has been reached. If the employer furnishes the wage statement to the discharged employee of the fifth of the month, the employer has complied with the requirement that it furnish the wage statement to the employee “semimonthly” because the employee would have ostensibly been furnished with the wage statement by the semimonthly date.

The court also rejected the plaintiff’s reliance on the California DLSE (Division of Labor Standards Enforcement) Enforcement Policies and Interpretations Manual, which provides, “[a] California employer must furnish a statement showing the following information to each employee at the time of payment of wages (or at least semi-monthly, whichever occurs first),” holding that the Manual is not entitled to deference as an agency regulation because it was not promulgated in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act. The court also did not find the agency’s interpretation persuasive, finding that the term “whichever occurs first” appears nowhere in the statute, and simply does not make sense given that the statute specifically provides employers a choice of two separate timeframes to issue wage statements:

1) “semimonthly” or

2)“at the time of each payment of wages.”

The Canales decision is certainly one where common sense prevailed. Keep it in mind next time next time you have the final pay, but not the wage statement, ready at the time of termination.

Quirky Question #281: Deploying the DTSA

Question: We believe our former employee recently stole some of our trade secrets and went to a competitor.  Can we rely on the Defend Trade Secrets Act to bring suit in federal court?

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Question #275: Can We Take A Stand On Employees Sitting?

Question: Some of our retail company’s employees in California are demanding chairs to sit in while they work. Management thinks it appears unprofessional to have workers sitting, but I hear the employees might have a legal right to sit down. Should management take a stand?

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Question #272: Competing in California

Question: One of our company’s employees recently left to start a competing business. We think he started this process while he was still employed by us, and that he is probably using information he learned from us.  We’re in California, so I know we don’t have a non-compete agreement with him.  Do we have any other recourse?

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Quirky Question #246, iKnow where your iPad is

Question:

Our California company intends to provide iPads to all of our sales employees, but to make sure we can locate the iPads if they are lost or stolen, we plan to use the iPads’ GPS capabilities to track their locations.  As an added bonus, we’ll also be able to track the sales employees themselves.  Any concerns with this plan? Answer→